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Friday, March 28, 2008

TURBIDIMETRY

Turbidimetry measures the amount of light blocked by particles in a solution. The amount of light blocked is dependent upon its cross sectional area, its size and amount in the unknown solution. For more information click the link below:

Turbidimetry

ELECTROPHORESIS

Migration of charged particles or solutes in an electric field. The net charge of the molecule, their size and shape, the strength of the electric field and the support medium used, influence the rate and speed of distribution of the unknown particles.

'Electrophoresis' link';

Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Gel_electrophoresis

EMISSION FLAME PHOTOMETRY (EFP)

• This method measures the concentration of an unknown solution by measuring the emitted flame from these solutions. Metal salts (Li,K,Na) are usually measured making use Of this method.



Image from this site, enter the LINK below for more information:

'Emission Flame Photometry! link';
Image from http://www.resonancepub.com/images/section701.gif

NEPHELOMETRY


Image from: http://www.lib.mcg.edu/.../ch4/ch4img/nephelom.jpg
and http://www.gmi-inc.com/CliniLab/Beckman%20Immage.htm

Enter the LINK below to know more:

'Nephelometry' link';

NEPHELOMETRY

The light that is scattered by particles in the unknown solution is measured and made as a basis of determining its concentration.

Factors affecting the amount of light scattered are:

a.the wavelength used – dispersion of light is inversely proportional to the
wavelength.
b.the size of the particles
c.the amount of particles in solution
d.the cross sectional area of the particles
e.the source of light - monochromatic lights give more reliable readings because they
minimize sample heating and have more stable readings.

FLUOROMETRY

This method measures the fluorescence of substances in solution and make this as a basis of determining the unknown concentration. This is done by measuring the electromagnetic radiation absorption of excited atoms when they return to a higher energy level than their original levels. The wavelength used will be longer to the excitation wavelength.

Parts of a basic filter fluorometer:

1. Energy Source
2. Primary filter
3. cell or Sample holder
4. Attenuator
5. Secondary filter
6. Detector (Photomultiplier)
7. Readout

ENYZMOLOGY

The pancreatic enzymes:

1. lipase
2. amylase

The hepatic enzymes (TRANSCRIBE)

1. 5 nucleotidase
2. ALP
3. ALT
4. LAP
5. GGT
6. LDH
7. OCT
8. CHS - the only enzyme decreased in liver disease


Cardiac Enzymes (TRANSCRIBE)

1. CPK
2. AST
3. LDH