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Sunday, December 13, 2009

Clinical Chemistry 2 - Scope of Prelim Exams (December 15, 2009)

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2

SCOPE OF EXAMS

TOPIC (%) ITEMS
INTRODUCTION 10 10
AUTOMATION 35 35
ELECTROLYTES 55 55
TRANSCRIPTION 10

Total items = 110

Type of Test:

1. Identification
2. Multiple choice
3. Essay
4. Transcription
5. Problem solving

Bring the following:

1. Permit
2. Calculators (Borrowing is not permitted)
3. 2 black pens

Come in proper uniform.

FOR YOUR GUIDANCE AND COMPLIANCE


Wednesday, November 25, 2009

LABORATORY RULES AND REGULATIONS

1. Before accepting borrowed apparatus, inspect carefully each equipment or glassware. Once issued, the Laboratory Technologist will consider all broken equipment as the responsibility of the student.

2. Always sign borrower's slip for equipment borrowed.

3. Equipment must be returned immediately after each laboratory period.

4. Upon the return of the apparatus, the form will be given back to you. If there are some apparatuses not accounted for, the form will remain in file.

5. No laboratory equipment maybe taken out of the laboratory.

6. Provide yourself with a laboratory gown, towel, rag and all the necessary Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

7. Be aware of the location of fire extinguishers. Put out fires due to inflammable solvent with a wet towel or blanket.

8. Throw away excess inflammable solvent into the sink with large amounts of water.

9. Wrap solid waste with paper, including blood clots, before throwing into the appropriate waste container.

10. Report immediately any damaged or broken equipment to the laboratory technologist.

11. Clean glassware immediately after use.

12. Clean working area thoroughly after each laboratory period.

13. Do not use any instrument in the laboratory without prior permission from your instructor.

14. Do not talk or laugh boisterously inside the laboratory.

15. Do not enter the preparation room without permission.

16. Do not operate the centrifuge machine unless the tubes are properly balanced and are positioned opposite each other.

17. Do not bring volatile solvent like ether or alcohol near an open flame.

18. Eating, drinking and smoking inside the laboratory are strictly prohibited.

19. Do not throw solid substances into the sink to avoid clogging of pipes.

20. Do not splash water on a chemical fire, this would only worsen the spread of the flames.

21. Alert anyone if you smell gas and try to locate the leak.

22. Never pipet by mouth, rubber aspirators are provided for this purpose.

23. Always wash your hands with soap and water before leaving the laboratory.

24. Observe the Universal precaution: “Treat all blood, blood products and other body fluids as potentially infectious, regardless of the knowledge on their HIV - SERO status."


Sunday, November 22, 2009

Assingnments MT 3 -

Deadline would be on Sunday - November 29, 2009


Edsel - colorimetric test for calcium - # 1-10
Fernand0- AAS test for calcium - # 2-10
Robin - Electrophoresis test for calcium # 3-10
Kim - Precautions in calcium test # 4-10
Tiffany - EFP test for calcium # 5 -10
Vixienne - normal values and C.S. for calcium # 6 -10
Jerome - colorimetric method for potassium # 7-10
Paul Arvin - AAS method for potassium # 8 -10
Jenny - Electrohphoresis method for potassium # 9-10
Abigail - EFP test for potassium # 10-10
Kate - precautions for potassium test # 11-10
Johanna - normal values and C.S. # 12-10
Jennie- colorimetric method for sodium # 13-10
Rosette - AAS method for sodium # 13 -10
Mark John - Electrohphoresis method for sodium # 14-10
Lilibeth - EFP test for sodium # 15-10
Justine - precautions for sodium test # 16-10
Jan Kevin - normal values and C.S. # 17-10
Princess - colorimetric method for chloride # 18-10
Aiko - AAS method for chloride # 19 -10
Toni Jerico - Electrohphoresis method for chloride # 20-10
Mark Jadrian - EFP test for chloride # 21-10
John Patrick - precautions for chloride test # 22-10
Jayson - normal values and C.S. of chlordie # 23-10
Noel - precipitation methods for chloride # 24-10
Marjorie - colorimetric method for phosphorus # 25-10
Norilie - AAS method for phosphorus # 26 -10
Lara Mikee - Electrohphoresis method for phosphorus # 27-10
Sheena Marie - EFP test for phosphorus # 28-10
Lea - precautions for phosphorus test # 29-10
Anna Kamille - normal values and C.S. of phosphorus # 30-10
Joseph - colorimetric method for magnesium # 31-10
Chelzylyn - AAS method for magnesium # 32 -10
Kristensen - Electrohphoresis method for magnesium # 33-10
Irish Mirah - precautions for magnesium test # 34-10
student with no designated assignment - normal values and C.S. of magnesium # 35-10


Saturday, November 21, 2009

Clinical Electrolytes - Cations and Anions


Electrolytes are amphoteric substances, meaning they could be positively or negatively charged. The positively charged ions are called cations, and the negatively charged -anions.

Examples given here are those electrolytes which are commonly tested in the clinical laboratory.

Positively charged ions are called CATIONS :

1. Potassium
- intracellular
2. Magnesium - intracellular
3. Calcium - extracellular
4. Sodium - extracellular

Negatively charged ions are called ANIONS :

1. Chloride
- extracellular
2. bicarbonate - extracellular
3. inorganic phosphorus - intracellular

The determination of these electrolytes are very significant in the assessment of several diseases like diabetic ketoacidosis, water-electrolyte status , and many more.


Saturday, November 7, 2009

ATTENTION - CC BLOGGERS

Photo: Courtesy of Red Castro

You have settled down now in your affiliation centers. You can now write your post. Good luck.


Thursday, October 22, 2009

ATTENTION -BS Pharma 4

THERE ARE NO STUDENTS FOR REMOVAL EXAMS. CONGRATULATIONS!!!


Wednesday, October 21, 2009

LIST OF STUDENTS FOR REMOVAL EXAMS IN CLIN. CHEM. 1

ATTENTION MT3 STUDENTS:

The following students are required to report on October 23, 2009; 9 am, for the REMOVAL EXAMS on CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1. Please come in complete uniform. Bring all necessary paraphernalia.

1. 07-0844-790
2. 07-0589-872
3. 07-0560-823
4. 07-0386-521
5. 07-0653-227
6. 07-0529-128
7. 07-0424-572
8. 07-1019-754
9. 07-1983-224
10. 07-0336-452
11. 07-0937-143
12. 07-0269-650
13. 07-0344-458

Sunday, October 18, 2009

RE-SCHEDULING OF CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1 REMOVALS




ATTENTION MT3

REMOVAL EXAMS FOR CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1 WILL NOT PUSH THROUGH TOMORROW (OCTOBER 19, 2009.)

KINDLY CHECK BACK FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS.


THIS IS ONLY FOR CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1. FOR THE REST OF THE SUBJECTS, SCHEDULE OF REMOVALS ARE THE SAME.

Photo by CLF

Saturday, October 10, 2009

ATTENTION MT3 - CC1 FINAL EXAMS TOPICS

TOPICS FOR FINAL EXAMS IN CC 1

LECTURE

1. Introduction to CC
2. Instrumentation
3. Laboratory Math
4. Specimen Collection/preparation
5. Carbohydrates
6. Lipids
7. Quality assurance/quality control

Type of test:

1. Identification
2. Multiple Choice
3. Problem solving
4. Essay
5. Transcription

LABORATORY

All experiments - Nos. 1- 15

Type of test:

1. Multiple choice
2. Essay


Thursday, October 1, 2009

WE ARE THE CHAMPIONS

And now for some motivators; we won the championship in the recently concluded CHOIR Competition. Supermedtech are you one of the guys?

Congratulations!




Sunday, September 27, 2009

ATTENTION - CC BLOGGERS

Post your essay on : "My First Week of Internship"

Good luck and God bless!

Congratulations to all the Board Passers and to TAMTAM CALAQUIAN for being TOP 2 in the September 2009 Licensure Exams for BSMT.



Saturday, September 12, 2009

Best Clin Chem Blogs





The following are adjudged as the Best Clin Chem Blogs for this Semester:

Rank 1

1. Eryll - Blog 23
2. Eugene - Blog 1
3. Angelica - Blog 20

Rank 2

1. Erika Shane - Blog 5
2. Diana - Blog 3
3. Kim Andrew - Blog 7
4. Lindsey - Blog 8
5. Ann Alexys - Blog 11
6. Dia Rowena - Blog 17
7. Ma. Raychel - Blog 13
8. Jayson - Blog 27
9. Christian Phillip - Blog 22
10.Kristine Kretel - Blog 18
11.Jhimpie - Blog 14
12.Lovely Rose - Blog 21

Rank 3

1. Jullius - Blog 2
2. Apple Joy - Blog 4
3. Mary Joy - Blog 24
4. Ethel - Blog 26
5. Mark Gideon - Blog 28

And to everyone, you've all done well. Keep posting and good luck to Internship training.


It's time to reveal your Evaluators. Here they are:



IT, blogging acumen, writing style, originality, impact, spunk, etc: Luke, Jan, Roy, Holly

Thanks for the help and support.



Thursday, September 10, 2009

ANNOUNCEMENT - MT 4 (CC BLOGGERS)

The following students should see me ( for consultation) anytime during the day (September 10, 2009), from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm.

1. Aubrey Lou
2. Ma. Raychel
3. Jimpie
4. Maricris
5. Lovely Rose
6. Christian Phillip
7. Charles Eryll
8. Louinne Amii
9. Ethel Coleen
10.Jayson
11. Mark Gideon
12. Marrion
13. Jullius
14. Diana Christina
15. Lindsey
16. Myron
17. Apple Joy

Friday, August 28, 2009

ATTENTION MT4 -(CC BLOGGERS) - REMINDERS

You are now embarking on a new phase of your training. Good luck and may the force be with you!

Please be reminded of the following:

1. Post your answers to your questions.

2. Post your essay about drug testing.

3. Read your classmates posts.

4. Spruce up your blogs, be the best!


Final Exams: ( September 2, 2009)

1. MULTIPLE CHOICE : ( total no. of items 130- lec; 50 - lab)
(online testing) .


Topics: Lecture

1. Endocrinology - 45 items
2. Toxicology - 45 items
3. Drug testing - 30 items
4. Transcription - 10 items

Laboratory - All experiments

What to bring:

1. Permits
2. IDs ( recent)
3. 1 sheet of yellow paper
4. calculators

GOOD LUCK!

Tuesday, August 4, 2009

NEW TOPICS FOR POSTING - MT4

ATTENTION MT 4 ( CC Bloggers)

PLS. TAKE NOTE OF YOUR NEW ASSIGNED TOPICS:

Define the assigned term and relate this to your major topic. Pictures related to the topic should be included. Be creative!


EUGENE - specificity

JULLIUS - target cell

DIANA CHRISTINA - hormones

PAUL MARRION - suppressant

APPLE JOY - stimulator

ERIKA SHANE - stimulation tests

MICHAEL ANGELO - inhibition tests

KIM ANDREW - negative feedback mechanism

LINDSEY - mechanism 1 of hormonal action

JIM ABNER SAM -mechanism 2 of hormonal action

MYRON - hormone receptor

ANN ALEXYS - transport proteins

AUBREY LOU - RIA

MA. RAYCHEL - ELISA

JIMPIE -Vivisection

NERA - EMIT

KELLY SHAYE LOUISE - CPBA

DIA ROWENA - Colorimetric method

MARK GIDEON - Fluorometric method

KRISTINE KRETEL - screening tests

MARICRIS -detoxification of urine

ANJELICA - When to use blood as a specimen of choice

LOVELY ROSE - When to use urine as a specimen of choice

CHRISTIAN PHILLIP - Universal precaution

CHARLES ERYLL - PPE

MARY JOY - proper recording/reporting of results

LOUINNE AMII - proper identification of patient

ETHEL COLEEN - proper assaying

JAYSON - quality control in hormone testing


All posts should be written and posted on or before August 19, 2009.

For your guidance and compliance.

Friday, July 31, 2009

NEW ANNOUNCEMENT FOR MT 3 STUDENTS

PLEASE BRING WITH YOU TWO BLUEBOOKS & 1 SHEET OF YELLOW PAPER FOR THE PRELIM EXAMS ON MONDAY.

DON'T FORGET THE OTHER REQUIRED MATERIALS , ESPECIALLY YOUR CALCULATORS

FOR YOUR GUIDANCE AND COMPLIANCE

/VBG

Friday, July 17, 2009

Table of Specifications - Clinical Chemistry 1 for MT3A


ATTENTION BSMT 3A

PRELIM EXAMS IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1

Type of test:

1. Mutliple choice
2. Identification
3. Problem solving
4. Essay
5. Transcription
6. Modified True or False

Please bring:

1. Two black pens/ballpens
2. Calculators (No borrowing)
3. Permits
4. Yellow paper (1 sheet)
5. BLUEBOOKS (# 2)

Topic /No. of items

1.Intro to clinical chemistry 15
2.Laboratory apparatus 10
3.Spectrophotometer 15
4.Other instruments 10
5.Prep'n of sols/lab math 75
6.Transcription 10

TOTAL ITEMS 135

FOR LABORATORY EXAMS

EXPERIMENT NOS. 1-4


For your compliance and guidance.

Photo by ccarlstead

Saturday, July 4, 2009

Clin Chem Student Bloggers Featured in the Struggling Blogger!

ATTENTION: MT 4 STUDENTS:

You've been featured by Roy dela Cruz's - The Struggling Blogger in his Bloggers Connection Post: Clin Chem Student Bloggers.


Roy has served as an inspiration for bloggers by his passion for blogging. He inspires others to move on inspite of hardhsips and temporary setbacks.

He is a blogger worthy of emulation. Thanks Roy for all the support!

Check his inspiring post! Congratulations to all of you and keep writing!

Friday, July 3, 2009

Maximize the Exposure of Your Blogs

ATTENTION: MT 4 STUDENTS:

For the 4th week:

Maximize the exposure of your blogs by using these pointers:

1. Read other blogs' posts and understand the content so you could leave well thought of comments, or comments that could contribute to the post.

2. Do not leave a comment asking them to visit your blogs. This is considered spamming.

3. Do not leave generic , one -liner comments like: "Great post!", "Brilliant!" "You're great!" If you can't avoid this, then explain why you think the post is great, etc.

4. If you commented properly and then you do not get any return visit, then you have to accept the fact that not all bloggers would do the same.

5. Visit and read as many blogs as you can, especially those that belong to the same genre as your topic.

GOOD LUCK, CC student-bloggers!

Saturday, June 27, 2009

Clin. Chem. Blogs' Evaluation: Week 3

All blogs were evaluated by two great bloggers
Roy dela Cruz of "The Struggling Blogger and
Dr. Lorenzo Bernardino of "Zorlone".



These two generous bloggers did it for love - gratis. Do take note of their recommendations and visit their blogs to say thank you. Browse their blogs and learn from them.

The prizes will be awarded next week during our laboratory class.

Take note of the following reminders: Demerit points will be given for non-compliance.

1. Follow my blog and your classmates' blogs. Log in first before you follow. No anonymous followers.

2. Subscribe to my blog and your classmates' blogs.

3. Be certain all the CC blogs are in your blogroll.

4. Follow and subscribe also to Clin Chem Reviewer.

5. Post the latest assignment: "Answers to your questions"

6. Blog hop and read your classmates' post.

7. Leave comments on your classmates' post.

8. Encourage each other.

9. The laboratory test will be derived from your different posts.

FOR YOUR GUIDANCE AND COMPLIANCE!
/VBG

Thursday, June 11, 2009

Re-evaluation of Blogs This Week

ATTENTION BSMT 4 STUDENTS:

1. Make the necessary corrections on your blogs.

2. Compose a 1-20 post quiz about your topic. Display it as a new post. Identification should be 1 to 10 and a case analysis would be items 11-20.

3. Do not copy from books or from internet sources. (Avoid being charged with plagiarism)

A 10 pt merit will be awarded to students who will have original questions and case studies.

4. Follow all CC blogs.

5. Complete your blog roll.

N.B.

T. Siroy and A. Naguiat, kindly come and see me on Monday.


For your guidance and strict compliance.

Photo by Nikes Alviz

Friday, June 5, 2009

UPDATES ON CC BLOGS

BSMT CC 4 STUDENTS: TAKE NOTE OF THE FOLLOWING:

1. You are given till Tuesday - June 9, 2009 to make the necessary corrections and suggestions I have required from your blogs. Read your comments to check further recommendations.

2. Be sure you have blog rolled all classmates in your side bar, with this blog as your 1st anchor.

3. Read and leave comments in posts.

4. Next topic for study are anterior and posterior pituitary glands.

5. Announcement of Best Blog for the Week will be on June 10, 2009.

6. Good luck to all.


Friday, May 29, 2009

Attention: MT4: All Posts Should be Written Before Wednesday


All posts should be written and posted on or before Wednesday - June 3, 2009. On Tuesday night, I'll be checking those who have completed their posts.

IMPORTANT REMINDERS!

1. DON'T COPY PASTE ARTICLES TO YOUR POST! YOU'LL BE CHARGED WITH PLAGIARISM - A CRIME WHICH HAS CORRESPONDING SANCTIONS.

2. Even if you didn't copy - verbatim- a reference material, you should still cite them in your references.

3. You could link your articles to relevant videos, posts, or any teaching aids available in the internet as long as you don't violate copyright.

4. Pictures you upload to your posts, should be properly attributed. Don't use copyrighted material. It is best to use your own pictures.

5. GOOD LUCK and welcome to the dynamic world of the blogosphere.

Photo by usm photos

Saturday, May 9, 2009

Diagnostic Exams and Assignment for MT4


Prepare for a Diagnostic Exam on Wednesday , May 13, 2009.

Topics covered CC1, CC2, CC3 (Endocrinology and Toxicology) .

Assignment:

Read about the introduction of Endocrinology & Toxicology.

Photo by dcJohn

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Blood Glucose Determination

Glucose levels are maintained in the body at 60-100 mg/dL and this is done through the body's homeostatic ability.

When the glucose levels increase, the primary hormone that decreases the level is insulin. On the other hand, the primary hormone that increases glucose levels when it is below normal, is glucagon.

Both of these hormones are produced by the pancreas in the beta and alpha cells of the Islets of Langerhans, respectively.

Since blood glucose levels are affected by diet through the food that we eat, fasting is required before a test is performed ( except in cases of RBS - Random Blood Sugar).

In the colorimetric method of glucose determination, The Orthotoluidine Method is the most common method utilized.

MANUAL PROCEDURE:

Precautions:

1. Patient should have fasted for 8-12 hours.
2. Unhemoylzed, non icteric and non turbid serum should be used to avoid interferences with the procedure.
3. The reagent contains sodium azide, which is corrosive, so PPE should be worn.
4. The solution should be brought to a boil to ensure proper reaction

MANUAL PROCEDURE:

Precautions:

1. Patient should have fasted for 8-12 hours.
2. Unhemoylzed, non icteric and non turbid serum should be used to avoid interferences
with the procedure.
3. The reagent contains sodium azide, which is corrosive, so PPE should be worn.
4. The solution should be brought to a boil to ensure proper reaction.

PROCEDURE PROPER:

1. Prepare Three tubes labeled, SA (Sample)/ C (Control), ST (Standard) and RB (Reagent Blank).

2. To the SA/C tube add 0.1 ml of the test specimen/ Control specimen.

3. To the ST tube add 0.1 ml of the standard stock solution.

4. To the RB tube add 0.1 ml of distilled water.

5. Add 4 ml of glucose reagent to all tubes. Cap and mix by gentle inversion.

6. Boil all tubes at 100 degrees centigrade for 8 minutes.

7. Cool tubes in running tap water for about 2 minutes.

8. Read absorbance of solutions in the spectrophotometer with appropriate cuvets at 636 nanometers against the RB (Reagent Blank).

9. Compute for the Cu (Concentration of the Unknown making use of the formula:

Cu= Absorbance of Unknown(Au) multiplied by the Concentration of the
Standard(Cs) divided by the Absorbance of the Standard (As)

Adapt the unit of the Cs

Normal Values = 60 - 100 mg/dL
to convert values to mmol/L multiply values in mg/dL with 0.0555

The clinical significance of the elevation of blood glucose denotes an abnormality in the body. One of the main causes of elevated blood levels is diabetes mellitus. It maybe Type 1, Type 2.

Further testing maybe done using OGTT (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) or 2HPPT (2 Hour Post Prandial test). The 2HPPT is more sensitive as a test for diagnosis of DM (diabetes mellitus). There are two types of DM: Type 1 and Type 2.


Sunday, March 29, 2009

FINAL LIST FOR REMOVAL EXAMS IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 2

BSMT 3 STUDENTS WITH THE FOLLOWING ID NUMBERS ARE REQUIRED TO REPORT ON MONDAY
(MARCH 30, 20O9)
FOR REMOVAL EXAMS.

COME IN COMPLETE UNIFORM AND BRING NECESSARY PARAPHERNALIA.

1. 06-1718-758
2. 058205
3. 06-059586
4. 058435
5. 058501
6. 06-0322-615
7. 059289
8. 06-1720-892
9. 06-2060-419
10. 06-0935-794

FOR YOUR COMPLIANCE AND GUIDANCE.

Saturday, March 28, 2009

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT FOR B.S. PHARM 4

EVERYONE HAS BEEN ABLE TO COMPLY WITH REQUIREMENTS. CONGRATULATIONS!

Photo by: CarbonNYC

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT FOR B.S.MT 3A

EVERYONE IS ADVISED TO STUDY FOR THE REMOVAL EXAMS SCHEDULED ON MONDAY MARCH 30, 2009; AT 9 AM, EXCEPT FOR THE FOLLOWING:

DE LEON, Lindsey
FLORES, Ann Alexys
GARCIA, Ma. Rachelle
LANUZA, Nera
LAXA, Kelly Shaye Louise
LEONARDO, Dia Rowena
PAYUAN, Lovely
SY, Charles Eryll
TAYAG, Louinne Amie
ZULUETA, Jayson

CHECK BACK FOR ANY CHANGES TONIGHT - MARCH 29, 2009 AT 7:00 PM.
(TIME: GMT + 8)

Sunday, March 22, 2009

The Importance of PPE (personal protective equipment)


Every laboratory class, be it in elementary, high school or college should always have a protocol on the proper use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The required PPE is usually composed of a laboratory gown, gloves, goggles, and hair cap. Additional accessories will largely depend upon the type of laboratory experiment to be performed.

The Universal Precaution is to "treat all specimens as potentially infectious." Reagents are also to be considered as toxins and treated as such, no matter what their classification is.

Laboratory reagents in general chemistry classes are usually preserved with sodium azide (NaN2), which is considered as a hazard to health causing symptoms like burns on skin and mucus membranes, respiratory problems, convulsions, and many more unhealthy side effects.

In clinical laboratory classes where students deal with human and animal specimens, proper orientation should be given, again, just before the performance of the procedure to remind the students of proper precautionary measures. This will ensure that students do not take the importance of a PPE for granted. The Universal Precaution should be prominently displayed in significant places where students get to read it more often.

What are the specific uses of each of the PPE?

1. Laboratory gown

This is a long sleeved, usually knee length coat which protects the student from direct exposure to harmful reagents and toxic specimens. In some cases, they are disposable but most students wash their gowns and autoclave them (if needed), which is less expensive than buying disposable gowns every laboratory performance.


2. Gloves

The hands are the most common routes to cause autoinfection that is why it should always be protected from contamination. For highly infectious agents a double or triple layer of gloves should be worn, or better the thickest and most durable brand should be utilized.

3. Goggles

These are used to protect the eyes from reagents/specimens, which may have the tendency to splatter and to produce destructive and corrosive fumes. Since the eyes are composed of thin mucus membranes they are delicate and are sensitive to foreign agents. Extra care should be done to protect these vital organs from damage.

4. Hair cap

The hair easily snags objects that may contaminate the student. It is also one source of mechanical hazards when it can get caught in revolving apparatus, or moving equipment. To avoid this, it should always be tied neatly in a bun and a hair cap neatly in place.

The primary consideration in a laboratory class should be the safety of the student. Every possible means of contamination and/or accident should be explained fully and avoided by making use of the required Personal Protective Equipment or PPE.

These safety measures should ensure that students would have a pleasant and rewarding learning experience in their laboratory class.

Photo by joguldi

Friday, February 20, 2009

Precautions in the Venipuncture Procedure

Venipuncture is a procedure that involves the extraction of blood from a vein making use of a syringe and a needle. This is done when the doctor wants to determine the levels of certain substances in blood to arrive at a correct diganosis.

It is an invasive procedure but the pain is tolerable when done by an expert. The most common site of puncture is the ante-cubital fossa which is composed of three veins, the cubital, basilic and the median cephalic. Blood extraction could be performed in veins that meet the criteria.

Here are some precautions to remember when performing venipuncture:

1. Be sure to identify the patient correctly. The reliability of results does not only concern the performance of the test but all processes involved with the test. This starts with patient identification. Ask the patient to state his name or to write it down. Make sure you got all your data entries correct including the complete name of the patient. There are people who have similar names so obtaining the middle name would be useful to solve such problems.

2. Know the tests required before commencing with the venipuncture as this would determine the type of blood specimen to collect and the manner of collection. i.e. anaerobic, for blood gas analysis (BGA), etc.

3. The site to be punctured should be free from hematoma and edema.

4. Proper sterilization procedures should be done before puncturing the vein, preferably a circular motion starting from the site of puncture going outwards. This is to minimize contamination of the site of puncture.

5. Do not puncture in the same vein that an IV fluid is inserted as the components of the IV fluid would contaminate your specimen. If you don't have any alternative, then collect your sample below the IV fluid.

6. Check that your syringe is not clogged by pulling and pushing the plunger. If it operates smoothly, then it could be used. Check also your needle of any factory defect. Do not; however, open the pack, not until you're ready to puncture as this may lead to contamination.

Read more...

Monday, February 2, 2009

Most Common Tests for Glucose

Glucose- also known as dextrose- is the most predominant carbohydrate. The glucose level in the blood is affected by diet through the food that we eat like carbohydrates (rice, bread, starch, etc.)

Blood glucose levels are usually tested in fasting samples of patients- Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS). The patient is required to fast for 8-12 hours before blood is extracted for testing. On certain occasions, Random Blood Sugar (RBS) or non-fasting samples are required too.

Oral Glucose Tolerance is also done in borderline suspected Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients; sometimes an HbA1C test is done to monitor compliance to medication of patients.

Although automated procedures employing the enzymatic principle of glucose assays are now being adapted by many clinical laboratories, the manual method using the Orthotoluidine method is still useful. Some manual methods employ the oxidation-reduction property of glucose to measure its concentration.

In the Orthotoluidine method utilizes the principle of the condensation of aromatic amines by glucose to form a green end product which is then measured spectrophotometrically.

Unhemolyzed, non-icteric, non- tubid and non- lipemic serum is the best specimen. Serum is the supernatant fluid when coagulated blood is centrifuged. If an anticoagulant is used EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) is preferable.

The specimen and the orthotoluidine reagent is mixed and then boiled for 5-8 minutes, and then the absorbance or transmittance is read in the spectrophotometer. The reading will then be computed based on the absorbance /transmittance of unknown and standard and computed.

This formula is used to determine Cu (concentration of unknown):

Cu= Absorbance of Unknown/ Absorbance of Standard X Concentration of standard (Cu=Au/As X Cs)

This will give you the concentration in milligrams per deciliter. To convert this to mmol/L multiply it with 0.0555 (conversion factor)

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on the other hand, measures the body's ability to metabolize glucose. This test is used to diagnose borderline diabetes and also determines gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women.

Read the rest at Helium.com



Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Fat Metabolism in the Body

The body has a mechanism called homeostasis that keeps all the blood levels of substances, including fat, within normal levels in the bloodstream. This means that we need a certain amount of fat too.

This homeostatic function is done automatically if all of the organs in the body are functioning normally, and when the fat intake is not in excess.

When there is dysfunction of the organs related to the metabolism of fat, pathologic conditions occur like hypercholesterolemia (elevated blood cholesterol), hypertriglycedemia (elevated blood triglyceride) and many others.

How then is fat metabolized and how does the body get rid of this excess fat?

The following have been proven to be successful in getting rid of excess fats in the body.

1. Through metabolism

When we ingest fats, it travels down from the mouth to the esophagus to the stomach and then to the small intestines. It is only in the small intestines that digestion occurs and is completed with the aid of pancreatic lipase, co lipase, and bile salts/bile acids. If one of these substances is missing, then the conversion of fat (lipid) to its simplest form, the fatty acid, will not occur. The excess fat then is stored in the adipose tissue, and when left unchecked will lead to obesity.

It is only through metabolism, when fats are converted to fatty acids, that they could be utilized and "removed" from the body through conversion to energy and the like.

2. Through exercise

When a person exercises, in the same manner that carbohydrates are utilized and excreted from the body, fats or lipids are also catabolized to acetyl CoA and then eventually to ATP, CO2 and water.

The body gets rid of the fats by converting them into these harmless substances during physical exertion or exercise. That is why when your fat or lipid levels are high, the doctor almost always recommend exercise to reduce the fats in your body by "burning" them.

An hour of jogging can burn around 500 calories of body fat; so if you want to get rid of those excess fats, then exercise! The more vigorous the exercise is the more fats that the body gets rid of.

3. Through selected diet

There are certain food that when taken in, could help the body to get rid of the fats.

These are food that contains citrus extracts, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, (substances with antioxidant effects) and phytochemicals, (substances that helps the immune system).

These substances are found usually in fruits and vegetables. Fruits like oranges, blueberries, apples, grape berries , strawberries, etc. and vegetables like carrots, kale, spinach, onion, eggplant, help a lot in excreting the fat from the body through its rich fiber content, citrus extract and antioxidant actions.

Aside from helping the body get rid of the fats, it has been proven through research that citrus fruits also reduces the propensity to coronary heart disease, cancer and acts as a protection from other diseases by strengthening the immune system.

Getting rid of the fat from one's system must be a combination of activities: body's own metabolism and homeostasis, dieting, and exercising. It is only when these three are in conjunction with each other that the process could be successful.