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Thursday, August 2, 2012

MIDTERM EXAMINATIONS IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3 LABORATORY

MIDTERM EXAMINATIONS IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 3 LABORATORY


1.    The process called when the unbound portion of medication moved from higher drug concentration(blood stream) to lower drug concentration( tissues)  until the balance reach between two areas is called ________DIFFUSION___________________

2.     When the patent on a specific pharmacologic agent expires, other companies are free to manufacture the drug and market it under their own name called  GENERIC NAME/GENERIC DRUG

3.     The time required for the concentration of the drug to decrease by 50% is called HALF LIFE_

4.    Prolong use of one or more drugs may stimulate the formation of more of  particular enzyme systems by the liver is a process known as _ENZYME INDUCTION

5.    The action of (chemical  drug) _AMINOGLYCOSIDES___ are to blocked the amino acid incorporation into the growing protein chain thereby lowering the amount of protein manufactured and causing the bacteria to misread the genetic code, resulting in the production of “incorrect proteins”.

6.    The action of  ( drug) _QUINIDINE___ is to lower the heart’s ability to conduct an electric current and its contraction decreases resulting to cardiac rhythm stabilizes.

7.    ___TRICYLIC  ANTIDEPRESSANTS______(class of drug) act by blocking the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by the presynaptic nerve endings.

8.    The active ingredients of aspirin is _____SALICYLATE__

9.    The response of any patient to drug treatment is highly __INDIVIDUALIZED__ and variable one depending on age, physical condition, genetic makeup, patients differ in response  to the same medication.

10.    __ENDOGENOUS DIGOXIN LIKE _SUBSTANCES___ are substances  in the blood that cross react with antibody  to digoxin due to expansion of the blood volume ,increase in blood pressure, acromegaly, renal impairment ,liver disease,  pregnancy which disappear from circulation 24 h after delivery.

11.    The net effect of the high protein binding and the uptake of tissues is a low level of __FREE FACTION/UNBOUND___  in the circulation

12.     ______LITHIUM__________ is a salt which is quickly absorbed into the circulation after oral admin that is used for the treatment of the of manic-depressive (bipolar illness).

13.     _______CHROMATOGRAPHY______________is an assay technique that has the ability to measure amount of parent drug and metabolites simultaneously, allowing quantitation of all significant contributors to the therapeutic effect.

14.     _______ALKALINIZATION________________ of urine is often utilized for emergency treatment of salicylate toxicity.

15.     ___CAFFEINE_________  is a significant metabolite of the drug theophylline in newborns and small children, monitoring for the presence and amount of this metabolite can be useful.

16.     As with all TDM, sampling time must be consistent and the most preferred specimen is the ______TROUGH SAMPLE_____, collected at the end of the dosing interval.

17.    One of the most prominent gene families that affect drug metabolism is the _____CYP 450 or CYTOCHROME P450___   family. It is an enzyme within the mixed function oxidase  system . It encodes a family of liver enzymes that metabolizes many drugs.

18.    The biochemical pathway responsible for a large portion of drug metabolism is the ___HEPATIC MIXED FUNCTION OX IDASE system. The basic function of this system involves taking hydrophobic substances and, through a series of enzymatic reactions, converting them into   

19.     ___WATER SOLUBLE______________substances facilitating easier absorption into the tissues and elimination by the kidneys

20.    ____TDM_______________ involves the analysis, assessment, and evaluation of circulating concentrations of drugs in serum, plasma, or whole blood. The purpose of these actions is to ensure that a given drug dosage produces maximal therapeutic benefit and minimal toxic adverse effects.

ESSAY –REFER TO NOTES

1.     Explain principles supporting TDM

a.     multiple dosing,  steady state of drug level
b.    Sub therapeutic, therapeutic, toxic level

2.    Enumerate 3 precautions needed in interpretation of TDM result